# Class WorksheetFunction (Excel VBA)

Used as a container for Microsoft Excel worksheet functions that can be called from Visual Basic.

Class Application gives access to class WorksheetFunction.

## Methods

Sum - Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.

```
Dim dblSum As Double
dblSum = WorksheetFunction.Sum(Arg1:=)
```

AccrInt - Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.

AccrIntM - Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.

Acos - Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is Arg1. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi.

Acosh - Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. Number must be greater than or equal to 1. The inverse hyperbolic cosine is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is Arg1, so Acosh(Cosh(number)) equals Arg1.

Acot - Returns the arccotangent of a number, in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi.

Acoth - Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number.

Aggregate - Returns an aggregate in a list or database.

AmorDegrc - Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. This function is provided for the French accounting system.

AmorLinc - Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. This function is provided for the French accounting system.

And - Returns True if all its arguments are True; returns False if one or more arguments is False.

Arabic - Converts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral.

Asc - For double-byte character set (DBCS) languages, changes full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters.

Asin - Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number. The arcsine is the angle whose sine is Arg1. The returned angle is given in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.

Asinh - Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. The inverse hyperbolic sine is the value whose hyperbolic sine is Arg1, so Asinh(Sinh(number)) equals Arg1.

Atan2 - Returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of the specified x- and y-coordinates. The arctangent is the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0, 0) and a point with coordinates (x_num, y_num). The angle is given in radians between -pi and pi, excluding -pi.

Atanh - Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. Number must be between -1 and 1 (excluding -1 and 1).

AveDev - Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. AveDev is a measure of the variability in a data set.

Average - Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments.

AverageIf - Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria.

AverageIfs - Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.

BahtText - Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix of Baht.

Base - Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base).

BesselI - Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments.

BesselJ - Returns the Bessel function.

BesselK - Returns the modified Bessel function, which is equivalent to the Bessel functions evaluated for purely imaginary arguments.

BesselY - Returns the Bessel function, which is also called the Weber function or the Neumann function.

Beta_Dist - Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.

Beta_Inv - Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. That is, if probability = Beta_Dist(x,...), then Beta_Inv(probability,...

Bin2Dec - Converts a binary number to decimal.

Bin2Hex - Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.

Bin2Oct - Converts a binary number to octal.

Binom_Dist - Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

Binom_Dist_Range - Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution.

Binom_Inv - Returns the inverse of the individual term binomial distribution probability.

BinomDist - Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

Bitand - Returns a bitwise And of two numbers.

Bitlshift - Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits.

Bitor - Returns a bitwise Or of two numbers.

Bitrshift - Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits.

Bitxor - Returns a bitwise Exclusive Or of two numbers.

Ceiling_Math - Rounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.

Ceiling_Precise - Returns the specified number rounded to the nearest multiple of significance.

ChiSq_Dist - Returns the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Dist_RT - Returns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Inv - Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Inv_RT - Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

ChiSq_Test - Returns the test for independence.

Choose - Uses Arg1 as the index to return a value from the list of value arguments.

Combin - Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items. Use Combin to determine the total possible number of groups for a given number of items.

Combina - Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items.

Complex - Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj.

Concat -

Confidence_Norm - Returns a value that you can use to construct a confidence interval for a population mean.

Confidence_T - Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.

Convert - Converts a number from one measurement system to another. For example, Convert can translate a table of distances in miles to a table of distances in kilometers.

Correl - Returns the correlation coefficient of the Arg1 and Arg2 cell ranges.

Cosh - Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.

Cot - Returns the cotangent of an angle.

Coth - Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.

Count - Counts the number of cells that contain numbers and counts numbers within the list of arguments.

CountA - Counts the number of cells that are not empty and the values within the list of arguments.

CountBlank - Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells.

CountIf - Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria.

CountIfs - Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria.

CoupDayBs - Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.

CoupDays - Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contain the settlement date.

CoupDaysNc - Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.

CoupNcd - Returns a number that represents the next coupon date after the settlement date.

CoupNum - Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon.

CoupPcd - expression.CoupPcd (Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, Arg4)

Covariance_P - Returns population covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.

Covariance_S - Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.

CritBinom - Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.

Csc - Returns the cosecant of an angle.

Csch - Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle.

CumIPmt - Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan between start_period and end_period.

CumPrinc - Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between start_period and end_period.

DAverage - Averages the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

Days - Returns the number of days between two dates.

Days360 - Returns the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months), which is used in some accounting calculations.

Db - Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method.

Dbcs - Converts half-width (single-byte) letters within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters. The name of the function (and the characters that it converts) depends upon the language settings.

DCount - Counts the cells that contain numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DCountA - Counts the nonblank cells in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

Ddb - Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.

Dec2Bin - Converts a decimal number to binary.

Dec2Hex - Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.

Dec2Oct - Converts a decimal number to octal.

Decimal - Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.

Degrees - Converts radians into degrees.

Delta - Tests whether two values are equal. Returns 1 if number1 = number2; otherwise, returns 0.

DevSq - Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean.

DGet - Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify.

Disc - Returns the discount rate for a security.

DMax - Returns the largest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify.

DMin - Returns the smallest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions that you specify.

Dollar - The function described in this Help topic converts a number to text format and applies a currency symbol. The name of the function (and the symbol that it applies) depends upon your language settings.

DollarDe - Converts a dollar price expressed as a fraction into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number. Use DollarDe to convert fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices, to decimal numbers.

DollarFr - Converts a dollar price expressed as a decimal number into a dollar price expressed as a fraction. Use DollarFr to convert decimal numbers to fractional dollar numbers, such as securities prices.

DProduct - Multiplies the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DStDev - Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DStDevP - Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DSum - Adds the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

Duration - Returns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value of $100. Duration is defined as the weighted average of the present value of the cash flows and is used as a measure of a bond price's response to changes in yield.

DVar - Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

DVarP - Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions that you specify.

EDate - Returns the serial number that represents the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a specified date (the start_date). Use EDate to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the same day of the month as the date of issue.

Effect - Returns the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

EncodeURL - URL encodes the argument.

EoMonth - Returns the serial number for the last day of the month that is the indicated number of months before or after start_date. Use EoMonth to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the last day of the month.

Erf_Precise - Returns the error function integrated between zero and lower_limit.

ErfC_Precise - Returns the complementary error function integrated between the specified value and infinity.

Even - Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer. You can use this function for processing items that come in twos. For example, a packing crate accepts rows of one or two items. The crate is full when the number of items, rounded up to the nearest two, matches the crate's capacity.

Expon_Dist - Returns the exponential distribution. Use Expon_Dist to model the time between events, such as how long an automated bank teller takes to deliver cash. For example, you can use Expon_Dist to determine the probability that the process takes at most 1 minute.

F_Dist - Returns the F probability distribution.

F_Dist_RT - Returns the right-tailed F probability distribution. You can use this function to determine whether two data sets have different degrees of diversity. For example, you can examine the test scores of men and women entering high school and determine if the variability in the females is different from that found in the males.

F_Inv - Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

F_Inv_RT - Returns the inverse of the right-tailed F probability distribution. If p = F_DIST_RT(x,...), then F_INV_RT(p,...

F_Test - Returns the result of an F-test. An F-test returns the two-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different. Use this function to determine whether two samples have different variances. For example, given test scores from public and private schools, you can test whether these schools have different levels of test score diversity.

Fact - Returns the factorial of a number. The factorial of a number is equal to 1*2*3*...

FactDouble - Returns the double factorial of a number.

Filter -

FilterXML - Gets specific data from the returned XML, typically from a WebService function call.

Find - Finds specific information on a worksheet.

FindB - Find and FindB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

Fisher - Returns the Fisher transformation at x. This transformation produces a function that is normally distributed rather than skewed. Use this function to perform hypothesis testing on the correlation coefficient.

FisherInv - Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. Use this transformation when analyzing correlations between ranges or arrays of data. If y = FISHER(x), then FISHERINV(y) = x.

Fixed - Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.

Floor_Math - Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.

Floor_Precise - Rounds the specified number to the nearest multiple of significance.

Forecast_ETS - Calculates or predicts a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm.

Forecast_ETS_ConfInt - Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date.

Forecast_ETS_Seasonality - Returns the length of the repetitive pattern that Excel detects for the specified time series.

Forecast_ETS_STAT - Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting.

Forecast_Linear - Calculates, or predicts, a future value by using existing values. The predicted value is a y-value for a given x-value. The known values are existing x-values and y-values, and the new value is predicted by using linear regression. You can use this function to predict future sales, inventory requirements, or consumer trends.

Frequency - Calculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers. For example, use Frequency to count the number of test scores that fall within ranges of scores. Because Frequency returns an array, it must be entered as an array formula.

Fv - Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

FVSchedule - Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. Use FVSchedule to calculate the future value of an investment with a variable or adjustable rate.

Gamma - Returns the gamma function value.

Gamma_Dist - Returns the gamma distribution. You can use this function to study variables that may have a skewed distribution. The gamma distribution is commonly used in queuing analysis.

Gamma_Inv - Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. If p = GAMMA_DIST(x,...), then GAMMA_INV(p,...

GammaLn_Precise - Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).

Gauss - Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.

Gcd - Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers. The greatest common divisor is the largest integer that divides both number1 and number2 without a remainder.

GeoMean - Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data. For example, you can use GeoMean to calculate average growth rate given compound interest with variable rates.

GeStep - Returns 1 if number ≥ step; otherwise, returns 0 (zero). Use this function to filter a set of values. For example, by summing several GeStep functions, you calculate the count of values that exceed a threshold.

Growth - Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data. Growth returns the y-values for a series of new x-values that you specify by using existing x-values and y-values. You can also use the Growth worksheet function to fit an exponential curve to existing x-values and y-values.

HarMean - Returns the harmonic mean of a data set. The harmonic mean is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of reciprocals.

Hex2Bin - Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.

Hex2Dec - Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.

Hex2Oct - Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.

HLookup - Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row that you specify in the table or array. Use HLookup when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows. Use VLookup when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data that you want to find.

HypGeom_Dist - Returns the hypergeometric distribution. HypGeom_Dist returns the probability of a given number of sample successes, given the sample size, population successes, and population size. Use HypGeom_Dist for problems with a finite population, where each observation is either a success or a failure, and where each subset of a given size is chosen with equal likelihood.

IfError - Returns a value that you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. Use the IfError function to trap and handle errors in a formula.

IfNa - Returns the value that you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A; otherwise, returns the result of the expression.

ImAbs - Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

Imaginary - Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImArgument - Returns the argument (theta), an angle expressed in radians, such that:.

ImConjugate - Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImCos - Returns the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImCosh - Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.

ImCot - Returns the cotangent of a complex number.

ImCsc - Returns the cosecant of a complex number.

ImCsch - Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.

ImDiv - Returns the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImExp - Returns the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLn - Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLog10 - Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImLog2 - Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImPower - Returns a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format raised to a power.

ImProduct - Returns the product of 2 to 29 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImReal - Returns the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSec - Returns the secant of a complex number.

ImSech - Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.

ImSin - Returns the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSinh - Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.

ImSqrt - Returns the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSub - Returns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImSum - Returns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

ImTan - Returns the tangent of a complex number.

Index - Returns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range. There are two forms of the Index function: the array form and the reference form.

Intercept - Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values. The intercept point is based on a best-fit regression line plotted through the known x-values and known y-values.

IntRate - Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security.

Ipmt - Returns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Irr - Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by the numbers in values. These cash flows do not have to be even, as they would be for an annuity. However, the cash flows must occur at regular intervals, such as monthly or annually. The internal rate of return is the interest rate received for an investment consisting of payments (negative values) and income (positive values) that occur at regular periods.

IsErr - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to any error value except #N/A.

IsError - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to any error value (#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!).

IsEven - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value is even.

IsFormula - Checks whether a reference is to a cell containing a formula, and returns True or False.

IsLogical - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to a logical value.

IsNA - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to the #N/A (value not available) error value.

IsNonText - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to any item that is not text. (Note that this function returns True if value refers to a blank cell.

IsNumber - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to a number.

ISO_Ceiling - Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.

IsOdd - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value is odd.

IsoWeekNum - Returns the ISO week number of the year for a given date.

Ispmt - Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. This function is provided for compatibility with Lotus 1-2-3.

IsText - Checks the type of value and returns True or False depending on whether the value refers to text.

Kurt - Returns the kurtosis of a data set. Kurtosis characterizes the relative peakedness or flatness of a distribution compared with the normal distribution. Positive kurtosis indicates a relatively peaked distribution. Negative kurtosis indicates a relatively flat distribution.

Large - Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. You can use this function to select a value based on its relative standing. For example, you can use Large to return the highest, runner-up, or third-place score.

Lcm - Returns the least common multiple of integers. The least common multiple is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of all integer arguments number1, number2, and so on. Use Lcm to add fractions with different denominators.

LinEst - Calculates the statistics for a line by using the least squares method to calculate a straight line that best fits your data, and returns an array that describes the line. Because this function returns an array of values, it must be entered as an array formula.

Ln - Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e (2.71828182845904).

Log - Returns the logarithm of a number to the base that you specify.

Log10 - Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.

LogEst - In regression analysis, calculates an exponential curve that fits your data, and returns an array of values that describes the curve. Because this function returns an array of values, it must be entered as an array formula.

LogNorm_Dist - Returns the lognormal distribution of x, where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev. Use this function to analyze data that has been logarithmically transformed.

LogNorm_Inv - Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function. Use the lognormal distribution to analyze logarithmically transformed data.

Lookup - Returns a value either from a one-row or one-column range or from an array. The Lookup function has two syntax forms: the vector form and the array form.

Match - Returns the relative position of an item in an array that matches a specified value in a specified order. Use Match instead of one of the Lookup functions when you need the position of an item in a range instead of the item itself.

Max - Returns the largest value in a set of values.

MaxIfs -

MDeterm - Returns the matrix determinant of an array.

MDuration - Returns the modified Macauley duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100.

Median - Returns the median of the given numbers. The median is the number in the middle of a set of numbers.

Min - Returns the smallest number in a set of values.

MinIfs -

MInverse - Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.

MIrr - Returns the modified internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows. MIrr considers both the cost of the investment and the interest received on reinvestment of cash.

MMult - Returns the matrix product of two arrays. The result is an array with the same number of rows as array1 and the same number of columns as array2.

Mode_Mult - Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, values in an array or range of data.

Mode_Sngl - Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data.

MRound - Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.

MultiNomial - Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.

Munit - Returns the unit matrix for the specified dimension.

NegBinom_Dist - Returns the negative binomial distribution. NegBinom_Dist returns the probability that there will be number_f failures before the number_s-th success, when the constant probability of a success is probability_s. This function is similar to the binomial distribution, except that the number of successes is fixed, and the number of trials is variable. Like the binomial, trials are assumed to be independent.

NetworkDays - Returns the number of whole working days between start_date and end_date. Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified in holidays. Use NetworkDays to calculate employee benefits that accrue based on the number of days worked during a specific term.

NetworkDays_Intl - Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. Weekend days and any days that are specified as holidays are not considered as workdays.

Nominal - Returns the nominal annual interest rate, given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

Norm_Dist - Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. This function has a wide range of applications in statistics, including hypothesis testing.

Norm_Inv - Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

Norm_S_Dist - Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one. Use this function in place of a table of standard normal curve areas.

Norm_S_Inv - Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one.

NPer - Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Npv - Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values).

NumberValue - Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner.

Oct2Bin - Converts an octal number to binary.

Oct2Dec - Converts an octal number to decimal.

Oct2Hex - Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

Odd - Returns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer.

OddFPrice - Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period.

OddFYield - Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period.

OddLPrice - Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period.

OddLYield - Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period.

Or - Returns True if any argument is True; returns False if all arguments are False.

PDuration - Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value.

Pearson - Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets.

Percentile_Exc - Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive.

Percentile_Inc - Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. You can use this function to establish a threshold of acceptance. For example, you can examine candidates who score above the 90th percentile.

PercentRank_Exc - Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set.

PercentRank_Inc - Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, inclusive) of the data set. This function can be used to evaluate the relative standing of a value within a data set. For example, you can use PercentRank_Inc to evaluate the standing of an aptitude test score among all scores for the test.

Permut - Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects. A permutation is any set or subset of objects or events where internal order is significant. Permutations are different from combinations, for which the internal order is not significant. Use this function for lottery-style probability calculations.

Permutationa - Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects.

Phi - Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution.

Phonetic - Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string.

Pi - Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits.

Pmt - Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Poisson_Dist - Returns the Poisson distribution. A common application of the Poisson distribution is predicting the number of events over a specific time, such as the number of cars arriving at a toll plaza in one minute.

Power - Returns the result of a number raised to a power.

Ppmt - Returns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Price - Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest.

PriceDisc - Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security.

PriceMat - Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity.

Prob - Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. If upper_limit is not supplied, returns the probability that values in x_range are equal to lower_limit.

Product - Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.

Proper - Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Converts all other letters to lowercase letters.

Pv - Returns the present value of an investment. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. For example, when you borrow money, the loan amount is the present value to the lender.

Quartile_Exc - Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.

Quartile_Inc - Returns the quartile of a data set based on percentile values from 0..1, inclusive. Quartiles often are used in sales and survey data to divide populations into groups. For example, you can use Quartile_Inc to find the top 25 percent of incomes in a population.

Quotient - Returns the integer portion of a division. Use this function when you want to discard the remainder of a division.

Radians - Converts degrees to radians.

RandBetween - Returns a random integer number between the numbers that you specify. A new random integer number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated.

Rank_Avg - Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers; that is, its size relative to other values in the list. If more than one value has the same rank, the average rank is returned.

Rank_Eq - Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. The rank of a number is its size relative to other values in a list. If you were to sort the list, the rank of the number would be its position.

Rate - Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. Rate is calculated by iteration and can have zero or more solutions. If the successive results of Rate do not converge to within 0.0000001 after 20 iterations, Rate returns the #NUM! error value.

Received - Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security.

Replace - Replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters that you specify, with a different text string.

ReplaceB - Replaces part of a text string, based on the number of bytes that you specify, with a different text string.

Rept - Repeats text a given number of times. Use Rept to fill a cell with a number of instances of a text string.

Roman - Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.

Round - Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.

RoundDown - Rounds a number down, toward 0 (zero).

RoundUp - Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero).

Rri - Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment.

RSq - Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's. For more information, see Pearson. The r-squared value can be interpreted as the proportion of the variance in y attributable to the variance in x.

RTD - This method connects to a source to receive real-time data (RTD).

Search - Search and SearchB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

SearchB - Search and SearchB locate one text string within a second text string, and return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

Sec - Returns the secant of an angle.

Sech - Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle.

Sequence -

SeriesSum - Returns the sum of a power series based on the following formula:.

Sinh - Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.

Skew - Returns the skewness of a distribution. Skewness characterizes the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean.

Skew_p - Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean.

Sln - Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period.

Slope - Returns the slope of the linear regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's. The slope is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance between any two points on the line, which is the rate of change along the regression line.

Small - Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set. Use this function to return values with a particular relative standing in a data set.

Sort -

SortBy -

SqrtPi - Returns the square root of (number * pi).

Standardize - Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev.

StDev_P - Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StDev_S - Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean).

StEyx - Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression. The standard error is a measure of the amount of error in the prediction of y for an individual x.

Substitute - Substitutes new_text for old_text in a text string. Use Substitute when you want to replace specific text in a text string; use Replace when you want to replace any text that occurs in a specific location in a text string.

Subtotal - Creates subtotals.

SumIf - Adds the cells specified by a given criteria.

SumIfs - Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.

SumProduct - Multiplies corresponding components in the given arrays, and returns the sum of those products.

SumSq - Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.

SumX2MY2 - Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

SumX2PY2 - Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. The sum of the sum of squares is a common term in many statistical calculations.

SumXMY2 - Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.

Syd - Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period.

T_Dist - Returns a Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are computed.

T_Dist_2T - Returns the two-tailed Student t-distribution.

T_Dist_RT - Returns the right-tailed Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed. The t-distribution is used in the hypothesis testing of small sample data sets. Use this function in place of a table of critical values for the t-distribution.

T_Inv - Returns the left-tailed inverse of the Student t-distribution.

T_Inv_2T - Returns the t-value of the Student t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.

T_Test - Returns the probability associated with a Student t-Test. Use T_Test to determine whether two samples are likely to have come from the same two underlying populations that have the same mean.

Tanh - Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.

TbillEq - Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.

TBillPrice - Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill.

TBillYield - Returns the yield for a Treasury bill.

Text - Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

TextJoin -

Transpose - Returns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range, or vice versa. Transpose must be entered as an array formula in a range that has the same number of rows and columns, respectively, as an array has columns and rows. Use Transpose to shift the vertical and horizontal orientation of an array on a worksheet.

Trend - Returns values along a linear trend. Fits a straight line (using the method of least squares) to the arrays known_y's and known_x's. Returns the y-values along that line for the array of new_x's that you specify.

Trim - Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. Use Trim on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing.

TrimMean - Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. TrimMean calculates the mean taken by excluding a percentage of data points from the top and bottom tails of a data set. You can use this function when you wish to exclude outlying data from your analysis.

Unichar - Returns the Unicode character referenced by the given numeric value.

Unicode - Returns the number (code point) corresponding to the first character of the text.

Unique -

USDollar - Converts a number to text format and applies a currency symbol. The name of the method (and the symbol that it applies) depends upon the language settings.

Var_P - Calculates variance based on the entire population.

Var_S - Estimates variance based on a sample.

Vdb - Returns the depreciation of an asset for any period that you specify, including partial periods, by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify. Vdb stands for variable declining balance.

VLookup - Searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from another column in the table array.

WebService - Underlying function that calls the web service asynchronously, using an HTTP GET request, and returns the response.

Weekday - Returns the day of the week corresponding to a date. The day is given as an integer, ranging from 1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday), by default.

WeekNum - Returns a number that indicates where the week falls numerically within a year.

WorkDay - Returns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date). Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified as holidays. Use WorkDay to exclude weekends or holidays when you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed.

WorkDay_Intl - Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays with custom weekend parameters. Weekend parameters indicate which and how many days are weekend days. Weekend days and any days that are specified as holidays are not considered as workdays.

Xirr - Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. To calculate the internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows, use the Irr function.

XLookup -

XMatch -

Xnpv - Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic.

Xor - Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments.

YearFrac - Calculates the fraction of the year represented by the number of whole days between two dates (the start_date and the end_date). Use the YearFrac worksheet function to identify the proportion of a whole year's benefits or obligations to assign to a specific term.

YieldDisc - Returns the annual yield for a discounted security.

YieldMat - Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

Z_Test - Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. For a given hypothesized population mean, Z_Test returns the probability that the sample mean would be greater than the average of observations in the data set (array); that is, the observed sample mean.