Declare and Set Worksheet

set worksheet menu

To be able to operate on a worksheet using VBA you have to specify which worksheet. Below discusses the many ways you can do this. The sample code declares and sets variables for the worksheet as a best practice. If you use the Code VBAadd-in using Set will add the declaration automatically. The below sections give an overview of the ways to Set a worksheet.

Note
It is possible to not use a variable in your code, but to operate directly on available methods that return a worksheet. As an example Application.ActiveSheet.Name will get you the name of the active worksheet - no need for a variable. However it is in most cases better to declare a variable in your code to refer to the worksheet because:
  • You are likely to have to refer to the worksheet you work on more than once in your code, in which case a variable often is shorter.
  • The name of the variable can make it more clear what its role is. It can be as simple as ws if there is only one workbook involved, or maybe wbActiveSheet if your code works on any active sheet.
  • It allows you to be very explicit about which sheet you really mean - any worksheet that happens to be on top, one with a specific name or position in workbook, in which workbook, etcetera.

Set Worksheet in a specified workbook - by name

If you write macros for a specific line of business, your worksheet actions will generally assume a specific (type of) workbook as it's context. As an example, below code could be included in an Excel file with a worksheet called Locations. If your macro would involve more worksheets, you would probably name the variable wsLocations.

Dim wb As Workbook: Set wb = ThisWorkbook
Dim ws As Worksheet
Set ws = wb.Sheets("Locations")
If ws Is Nothing Then
    Exit Sub 'possible way of handing no worksheet was set
End If

Returns Nothing if no sheet exists with that name. In fact any approach that tries to return a worksheet may return Nothing, so you should always check if a valid worksheet was set.

Note
ws and wb are commonly used short names and prefixes for Worksheet and Workbook

Set Worksheet in general purpose macros

If you want your macro to be usable in any workbook, you probably want it to work on any active sheet (= the one on top) - for example, clear its contents.

Dim wsActiveSheet As Worksheet
Set wsActiveSheet = Application.ActiveSheet
wsActiveSheet.UsedRange.Clear

ActiveSheet

ActiveSheet returns the active sheet (the sheet on top) in the active workbook or active window. Above code shows the use of the default use: Application.ActiveSheet

ActiveSheet in Workbook

If your macro only is to be used in a specific workbook, for example one that it has just opened, use the more specific

Dim wb As Workbook: Set wb =
Dim wsActiveSheet As Worksheet
Set wsActiveSheet = wb.ActiveSheet

ActiveSheet in Window

If the workbook appears in more than one window, wb.ActiveSheet may be different in different windows. In that case use:

Dim wnd As Window: Set wnd = 
Dim wsActiveSheet As Worksheet
Set wsActiveSheet = wnd.ActiveSheet

Obtaining the worksheet from a property of another object

Range.Worksheet

Dim rng As Range: Set rng =
Dim wsWorksheet As Worksheet
Set wsWorksheet = rng.Worksheet

Next and Previous Worksheet

This way of setting a worksheet is available for both Worksheet and Chart objects

Dim ws As Worksheet: Set ws =
Dim wsNext As Worksheet
Set wsNext = ws.Next
Dim ws As Worksheet: Set ws =
Dim wsPrevious As Worksheet
Set wsPrevious = ws.Previous

Parent property of a PageBreak object

Dim hpgbr As HPageBreak: Set hpgbr =
Dim wsParent As Worksheet
Set wsParent = hpgbr.Parent